Stroke or heart infarct?

According to a recent study by Daghlas and colleagues1, compared to sleeping 6 to 9 h/night, short sleepers have a 20% higher risk of having a heart attack; but, if you are a long sleeper (i.e., sleeping >9h/night), than your chances are even worse, because your risk increases to 34%. Even though the researchers don’t know the underlying cause for such susceptibilities, they claim sleeping too much or too little boosts inflammation in the body, which is associated with the development of heart disease. If you have a genetic predisposition for heart disease, this study found that sleeping between 6-9h, actually reduces your risk of having a heart attack by 18%, which is actually very good news, since not only diet and exercise can help you keep your heart healthy. More and more data, supports the evidence that we should consider sleep to be an adjustable and controllable risk factor for our good heath status2.

Speaking of diet, another study published recently in the Journal of the American Heart Association by Hyunju Kim and his team3, showed that healthy plant‐based diets, which are higher in whole grains, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, tea, and coffee, and lower in animal foods, were associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease mortality and all‐cause mortality. Of course, they didn’t explore if the quality of plant foods (either healthy plant foods, or less-healthy plant foods) within the “framework of plant‐based diets” would be associated with cardiovascular disease and all‐cause mortality in the general population.

But, what is intriguing is that, another recent study by Tammy Tong and colleagues4, examined the associations of vegetarianism with risks of ischemic heart disease (i.e., coronary artery disease) and stroke. The results of this study showed that vegetarians had 20% higher rates of total stroke than meat eaters – which was equivalent to 3x more cases of stroke over 10 years; and, the associations for stroke did not soothe after adjustments to other disease risk factors. As the authors of the study say, vegetarian and vegan diets have become increasingly popular in recent years, partly due to perceived health benefits, as well as concerns about the environment and animal welfare; but, what the evidence suggests, is that vegetarians might have different disease risks compared with non-vegetarians. The study group of vegetarians and vegans in this cohort had lower circulating levels of several nutrients (e.g., vitamin B12, vitamin D, essential amino acids, and long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids), and differences in some of these nutritional factors could contribute to the increased stroke risk. Not only that, but a number of studies in Japan5, 6, showed that individuals with very low intake of animal products, also had an increased incidence and mortality from hemorrhagic and total stroke, implying that some factors connected with animal food intake might be protective for stroke. 

Its like Yin and Yang from ancient Chinese philosophy. Rather than opposing, or standing at the sides, our health and life is made of complementary forces that interact to form a dynamic system. It’s all about balance and balancing the sides (and diets).

#Balancing
Balancing life’s way

References:

1.         Daghlas I, Dashti HS, Lane J, Aragam KG, Rutter MK, Saxena R and Vetter C. Sleep Duration and Myocardial Infarction. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2019;74:1304-1314.

2.         Tobaldini E, Fiorelli EM, Solbiati M, Costantino G, Nobili L and Montano N. Short sleep duration and cardiometabolic risk: from pathophysiology to clinical evidence. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2019;16:213-224.

3.         Kim H, Caulfield LE, Garcia-Larsen V, Steffen LM, Coresh J and Rebholz CM. Plant-Based Diets Are Associated With a Lower Risk of Incident Cardiovascular Disease, Cardiovascular Disease Mortality, and All-Cause Mortality in a General Population of Middle-Aged Adults. J Am Heart Assoc. 2019;8:e012865.

4.         Tong TYN, Appleby PN, Bradbury KE, Perez-Cornago A, Travis RC, Clarke R and Key TJ. Risks of ischaemic heart disease and stroke in meat eaters, fish eaters, and vegetarians over 18 years of follow-up: results from the prospective EPIC-Oxford study. BMJ. 2019;366:l4897.

5.         Kinjo Y, Beral V, Akiba S, Key T, Mizuno S, Appleby P, Yamaguchi N, Watanabe S and Doll R. Possible protective effect of milk, meat and fish for cerebrovascular disease mortality in Japan. J Epidemiol. 1999;9:268-74.

6.         Sauvaget C, Nagano J, Allen N, Grant EJ and Beral V. Intake of animal products and stroke mortality in the Hiroshima/Nagasaki Life Span Study. Int J Epidemiol. 2003;32:536-43.

Underwater banquet!

Cabal, is a term defined in the Merriam-Webster dictionary, as the contrived scheme of a group of persons secretly united in a plot (as to overturn a government, for example). 

But, if you talk in terms of Biology, cabals are also a series of synergistic venom peptides essential for the capture of prey. One animal venom can be a complex mixture of 10-200+ short chains of amino acids linked by bonds (peptides), working in a concerted mode to regulate physiological function, with very potent and precise molecular targets1.

For example, cone snails, a small venomous marine mollusk that hunts fish and worms, has ~850 species identified, with each expressing many thousands of unique peptides that selectively target a diverse range of voltage- and ligand-gated ion-channels, transporters and G-protein couple receptors2

These tiny wonders of nature have the ability to switch between predatory and defensive venom regimes. For example, if they just want to stunt a predator causing a flaccid paralysis, they will produce venom that has high levels of muscle blockers (motor cabal), and that inhibit sodium channels and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. But, if in the mean time, they change their minds and intend to eat the prey, they use a combination of peptides that cause a rigid paralysis. This lightning-strike cabal has excitatory peptides that inhibit potassium channels and delay inactivation of sodium channels, causing the prey to lie “dead” until it is happily digested in an underwater banquet.

But, how does the cone snail decide whether it is fear or hunger that it’s “feeling” in that moment?

The simple neuronal circuit of the cone snail shifts from a contented state of inertia, to an active motion, stimulated by internal hunger and an appetite stimulus – just like us, slushing from the couch to the fridge looking for our night prey… The hunting activity of the Conus is then organized by a basic set of behavioral transitions. Once the cone snail detects a fish, through sensory signals, it becomes much more active and moves towards the fish extending its rostrum– a massive funnel formed by the muscular walls of the snail sheath; and, a long, thin trunk extends out in the open, where a harpoon-like tooth shoots out to pierce the skin of the fish3 – imagine if we could actually do the same to that bag of cookies that is lying in the shelve right next to the couch.

The active feeding of the cone snail tends to inhibit the avoidance, and the snail changes to a prevention mood once its appetite is satisfied4

Cone snail
Cone snail

Reference:

1.         Angell Y, Holford M and Moos WH. Building on Success: A Bright Future for Peptide Therapeutics. Protein Pept Lett. 2018;25:1044-1050.

2.         Himaya SWA, Mari F and Lewis RJ. Accelerated proteomic visualization of individual predatory venoms of Conus purpurascens reveals separately evolved predation-evoked venom cabals. Sci Rep. 2018;8:330.

3.         Olivera BM, Seger J, Horvath MP and Fedosov AE. Prey-Capture Strategies of Fish-Hunting Cone Snails: Behavior, Neurobiology and Evolution. Brain Behav Evol. 2015;86:58-74.

4.         Gillette R and Brown JW. The Sea Slug, Pleurobranchaea californica: A Signpost Species in the Evolution of Complex Nervous Systems and Behavior. Integr Comp Biol. 2015;55:1058-69.